Why does relief appear?

 

When a ray crosses the surface separating two mediums with a different refractive index with a certain degree of inclination, its path diverges.

In this case N>n, and the rays bend away from their optic normal (which is perpendicular to the surface which separates the two mediums) and are concentrated in the mineral, leaving a space which causes a dark area to appear on its edge.

 

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