Publicada por la Sociedad Española de la Ciencia del Suelo
Volumen 6. Diciembre 1999. pág 73-84.
OPTIMIZACIÓN DE LA FERTILIZACIÓN NITROGENADA: PROCEDIMIENTOS DE ANALISIS DE SUELO, TOMA DE MUESTRA Y ELECCIÓN DEL TIPO DE FERTILIZANTE
J. A. DÍEZ LÓPEZ
Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales. CSIC. C/ Serrano 115, 28006 Madrid. firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Excess of nitrogen fertilizer rates is an environmental hazard. To avoid excess rates, the level of available nitrogen in the soil, must be well known for assessing the nitrogen fertilizer rate.
The methods to determine the optimization of nitrogen fertilization, are revised. The main methods considered in this paper were: N min, electroultrafiltration (EUF) and CaCl2. By means of this procedures and field experiments with differents crops, some available nitrogen determination systems, are shown. The object is to optimize nitrogen fertilizer rates in order to reduce the losses of nitrate leaching.
A discussion on the necessity of acount the potentially mineralizable nitrogen in the soil, before the crop has started, is included. This information, can be obtained by means of organic N extracted by EUF or CaCl2. The calibration dates of this parameter, found in experiments realized in several EU countries with the obtained in Spain, has been compared.
Moreover, time of soil sampling, the suitable type of nitrogen fertilizer and the effect of the irrigation rates, are discussed.
Key words: available soil nitrogen, soil test, N min, electroultrafiltration, nitrogen fertilization rates.
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